Bibliography for Theory Construction in SLA



Anderson, J. 1983: The Architecture of Cognition.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Appignanesi, R. 1995: Postmodernism.

Appignanesi, R. and Garratt, C. 1995: Introducing Postmodernism.  New York: Totem Books.

Asley, D. 1997: History Without a Subject: The Postmodern Condition.  Boulder: Westview.

Asimov, I. 1975a: Guide to Science: The Physical Sciences.  Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Asimov, I.1975b: Guide to Science: The Biological Sciences.  Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Atkinson, M. 1982: Explanation in the study of child language development.  Cambridge: C.U.P.

Bachman, L. 1990: Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bacon, F. 1974 [1605]: The Advancement of Learning: New Atlantis.  Ed. A. Johnston.Oxford: Claredon.

Bailey, N., Madden, C. and Krashen, S. 1974: Is there a ‘natural sequence’ in adult second language learning?  Language Learning 21, 2, 235-43.

Barnes, B. 1974: Scientific knowledge and sociological theory.  London: Routeledge and Kegan Paul.

Barnes, B. and Bloor, D. 1982: Relativism, Rationalism, and the Sociology of  Science. In Hollis, M. and Lukes, S.  Rationality and Relativism,  21-47.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bartley,W.W. 1982: Critical Study: The philosophy of Karl Popper Part III: Rationality, Criticism, and Logic.  Philosophia 11 no.1: 121 – 221.

Bartley,W.W. 1987: Theories of Rationality.  In Radnitzky, G. and Bartley, W.W. 1987: Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge.  205-214. La Salle III, Open Court..

Bates, E. 2000: Language Savants and The Structure of The Mind.  International Journal of Bilingualism.

Bates, E. And Elman, J, and Johnson, M, and Karmiloff-Smith, A., and Parisi, D., and Plunkett, K.: Innateness and Emergentism.  In Bechtel, W., and Graham, G., (eds): Companion to Cognitive Science. 590-601.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bates, E. and Goodman, J. 1997: On the inseparability of grammar and the lexicon:  evidence from apasia, acquisition and real-time processing.  Language and Cognitive Processes, 12 , 507-584.

Bates, E. and MacWhinney, B. 1987: Second language acquisition from a functionalist perspective: pragmatic, semantic, and perceptual strategies.  In Winitz, H. (ed.) Native language and foreign language acquisition.   Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  

Bauman, Z. 1992.  Limitations of Postmodernity  London: Routledge.

Beretta, A. 1991: Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition. Complementarity and opposition.  Studies in Second Language Acquisition 13,3: 451-512.

Beretta, A., and Crookes, G. 1993: Cognitive and social determinants of discovery in SLA.  Applied Linguistics 14, 3, 250-275.

Bialystok, E. 1979: Explicit and implicit judgements of L2 grammaticality. Language Learning 29, 81-104.

Bialystok, E. 1994: Representation and ways of knowing: three issues in SLA.  In Ellis, N. (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London Academic Press, 549-569.

Bialystok, E. 2001: Bilingualism in Development.  Cambridge: CUP.

Bialystok, E. and Hakuta, K. 1994: In Other Words.  New York: Basic Books.

Bialystok, E. And Sharwood Smith, M. 1985: Interlanguage is not a state of mind.  Applied Linguistics, 6, 2, 101-117

Birdsong, D. 1989: Metalinguistic Performance and Interlanguage Competence. New York: Springer.

Bley-Vroman, R. 1989a: What is the logical problem of foreign language learning?  In Gass, S. and Schachter, J. (eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition, 41-48Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bley-Vroman, R. 1989b: The logical problem of foreign language learning. Linguistic Analysis  20:1-2; 3-49.

Block, D. 1996: Not so fast: some thoughts on theory culling, relativism, accepted findings and the heart and soul of  SLA.  Applied Linguistics  17,1, 63-83.

Bloomfield, L. 1933: Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Bloor, D. 1976: Science and Social Imagery.  London: Routeledge and Kegan Hall.

Bogen, J. and  Woodward, J. 1988. ‘Saving the phenomena.’ Philosophical Review 97: 303-52.

Boghossian, P. 2001: What is social construction?  Times Literary Supplement, February 23, 6-8.

Botha, R. 1991: Challenging Chomsky: the generative garden game.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Braidi, S. M. 1995: Reconsidering the role of interaction and input in second language acquisition. Language Learning 45, 141-75.

Brinner, J. 1999: Postmodernism and Constructivism.

Brockman, J. 1995: The Third Culture; Beyond the Scientific Revolution.  New York:Simon and Schuster.

Brown, J, R. 2001: Who Rules In Science?  Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard University Press

Brumfit, C. J. 1997: Theoretical practice: applied linguistics as pure and practical science. AILA Review 12, 18-30.

Bunge, M. 1996: In Praise of Intolerance to Charlatanism in Academia.  In Gross, R, Levitt, N., and Lewis, M.  The Flight From Science and Reason. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 777, 96-116.

Canale, M. 1983: On some dimensions of language proficiency.  In Oller, J. (ed.): Issues in Language Testing Research.  Rowley, M.A.: Newbury House.

Canale, M. and Swain, M. 1980: Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1: 1-47.

Candlin, C. 1983: Plenary address delivered at the Second Language Research Forum, Los Angeles.

Carroll, S.E. 2001: Input and Evidence.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Casti, J.L. 1989: Paradigms Lost. London: Abacus.

Cazden, C. 1968: The acquisition of noun and verb inflections. Child Development 39: 433-48.

Cazden, C., Cancino, E., Rosansky, E. and Schumann, J. 1975: Second language acquisition sequences in children, adolescents and adults. Final report submitted to the National Institute of Education, Washington, D.C.

Chalmers, A.F. 1978: What is this thing called science?  Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Chalmers, A.F. 1990: Science and its fabrication. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Chapelle, C.  1998: Some notes on Systemic-Functional linguistics.

Chaudron, C.1986: The interaction of quantitative and qualitative approaches to research: a view of the second language classroom. TESOL Quarterly 20:70-89.

Chomsky, N. 1957: Syntactic Structures.  The Hague: Mouton.

Chomsky, N. 1959: Review of Skinner’s Verbal Behaviour. Language, 35 26-58.

Chomsky, N.  1965: Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. 1975: Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon Books.

Chomsky, N. 1980: Rules and representations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Chomsky, N. 1981b: Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht, Foris.

Chomsky, N. 1986: Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin and Use.  New York: Prager.

Chomsky, N. 1988: Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. 1995: The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. 1996: Powers and Prospects: Reflection on Human Nature and the Social Order.  London: Pluto Press.

Chomsky, N. 2000: New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind.  Cambridge University Press.

Chipiere, N. 1997: Real Language Users.

Clahsen, H. 1987: Connecting theories of language processing and (second) language acquisition. In Pfaff, C. (ed.) First and second language acquisition processes. 103-116. Newbury House, Cambridge, Mass.

Clahsen, H. 1988: Critical phases of grammar development: a study of the acquisition of  negation in children and adults.  In Jordens, P and Lalleman, J. (eds.) Language development. 123-48. Foris, Dordrecht.

Clahsen, H., Meisel J. and Pienemann, M. 1983: Deutsch als Zweitsprache: der Sprachenperb auslandischerArbeiter. Gunter Narr, Tubingen.

Cook, V. J. 1989: Universal Grammar Theory and the classroom.  System, 17, 2, 169-181

Cook, V. J. 1991: The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence.  Second Language Research, 7,2, 103-117.

Cook, V. J. 1993: Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition.  Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Cook, V. J. 1994: The Metaphor of Access to Universal Grammar in L2 Learning.  In Ellis, N. (ed)  Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.  London: Academic Press.

Cook, V. J. 1996: Second Language Learning and Language Teaching.  London: Arnold.

Cook, V. J. and Newson, M. 1996: Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.

Corder, S. P. 1967: The significance of learners’ errors. international Review of Applied Linguistics 5, 161-9.

Corvalis, G. 1997: The philosophy of science. Science and objectivity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crookes, G. 1992: Theory format and Second Language Acquisition theory. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 14, 4, 425-49.

Crystal, D. 1987: The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Culler, J. 1982: On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Cummins, R. 1983: The nature of psychological explanation.  Cambridge, MA: IT press.

Darden, L. 1991: Theory Change in Science: Strategies from Mendelian Genetics.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Darwin, C. 1963 [1849]: On the origin of species.  New York: The Heritage Press.

Davis, K.A. 1995: Qualitative Theory and Methods in Applied Linguistics Research. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 3, 427-455.

Deacon, T. W. 1997: The Symbolic Species.  New York: W.W. Norton.

De Groot, A.M.B. and Kroll, J.F. (eds): 1997: Tutorials in Bilingualism: Psycholiguistic Perspectives.  Lawrence Erlbaum (esp Paradis).

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds.) 1998: Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Derrida, J. 1973: Speech and Phenomena. Evanston: Northwestern University Press

Derrida, J. 1976: Of Grammatology.  Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak  Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

Derrida, J. 1978: Writing and Difference. Trans. Alan Bass. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Derrida, J. 1981: Positions. Trans. A. Bass.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Derrida, J. 1985: The Ear of the Other.  Trans C.V. McDonald.  New York: Schocken Books.

Descartes, R. 1969 [1637]: Discourse On Method. In Philosophical Works of Descartes, Volume 1. Trans. E. Haldane and G. Ross.  Cambridge University Press.

Diesing, P. 1991: How does social science work? Reflections on practice. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Dornyei, Z. 2001: Teaching and Researching Motivation.  London: Longman.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. 1973: Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning 24, 245-58.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. 1974a: Errors and strategies in child second language

acquisition. TESOL Quarterly 8, 12-36.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. 1974b: Maturational sequences in child second language

acquisition. Language Learning 24, 37-53.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. 1975: Creative construction in second language learning and

teaching. In Burt, M and Dulay, H. (eds.), New directions in second language learning, teaching, and bilingual education. Washington, DC: TESOL, 21-32.

Dulay, H, Burt, M. and Krashen, S. 1982: Language Two. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Duskova, L. 1969: On sources of error in foreign language learning.  International

Review of Applied Linguistics 7, 11-36.

§   Eckman, F.R. 1991: On the determination of the proper level of abstraction for a

theory of second language acquisition.  Paper presented at the Applied Linguistics at Michigan State University conference on Theory Construction and Methodology in Second Language Research.  East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Eckman, F.R. 1996: On evaluating arguments for special nativism in second language

acquisition theory.  Second Language Research, 12, 4, 398-491.

Einstein, A. 1979: Autobiographical Notes. Translated and edited by P.A. Schilpp.  La

Salle : Open Court Publishing.

Ellis, N. 1999: Cognitive Approaches to SLA.  Annual Review of Applied

 Linguistics, 19, 22-42.

Ellis, N. 2002: Frequency Effects in Language Processing and Acquisition.  Studies in

Second Language Acquisition 24,2, 143 – 187

Ellis, R. 1985: Sources of variability in interlanguage. Applied Linguistics 6, 118-31.

Ellis, R.  1986:  Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Ellis, R. 1987: Interlanguage variability in narrative discourse: style-shifting in the use

of the past tense. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 9, 1-20.

Ellis, R. 1989: Sources of intra-learner variability in language use and their

relationship to second language acquisition. In Gass, S., Madden, C., Preston, D. and Selinker, L. (eds.), Variation in second language acquisition. Volume II: psycholinguistic issues. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 22-15.

Ellis, R. 1990: A Response to Gregg.  Applied linguistics 11, 384-91

Ellis, R. 1994: The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Ellis, R. 1997: SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elman, J., Bates, E., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D. and Plunkett, K.

1996: Rethinking innateness: a connectionist perspective on development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Epstein, S., Flynn, S., and Martohardjono, G. 1996: Second Language Acquisition:

Theoretical and experimental issues in contemporary research.  Behavioural and Brain Sciences.  Vol. 19, 4, 677-758.

Eubank, L. and Gregg, K. R. 2002: News Flash – Hume Still Dead.  Studies in Second

Language Acquisition, 24, 2, 237-248.

Feyerabend, P. 1961: Knowledge Without Foundations.  Oberlin: Oberlin College.

Feyerabend, P. 1975: Against Method.  London: Verso.

Feyerabend, P. 1978: Science in a Free Society.  London: New Left Books.

Firth, A., and Wagner, J. 1997: On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental

concepts in SLA research. Modem Language Journal 81,3, 285-300.

Firth, A., and Wagner, J.1998: SLA property: No trespassing! Modem Language Journal 82, 1, 91-94.

Flynn, S. 1987: A parameter-setting model of L2 acquisition.  Dordecht: Reidel.

Fodor, J. A. 1975: The language of thought. New York: Crowell.

Fodor, J. A. 1983; The modularity of mind. Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.

Fodor, J. A. 2001: Language, thought and compositionality.  Mind and Language, 16, 1-


Foucault, M. 1980: Power and Knowledge.  New York: Pantheon.

Gardner, R. C. 1985: Social psychology and second language learning: the role of

attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Gardner, R.C. and Lambert, W. 1972: Attitudes and motivation in second language

learning.  Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.

Gass, S. 1996: Second language acquisition and linguistic theory: the role of

language transfer. In Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K. (eds.) Handbook of second

language acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, 317—45.

Gass, S. 1997: Input, Interaction and the Second Language Learner. Marwash, N. J.

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gass, S. and Selinker, L. 1994: Second language acquisition: an introductory course.

New Jersey: Lawrence Eribaum.

Gasser, M. 1990: Connectionism and Universals of Second Language Acquisition.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 2, 267-280.

Gregg, K. R. 1984: Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor. Applied Linguistics 5, 79-


Gregg, K. R. 1990: The Variable Competence Model of second language acquisition

and why it isn’t.  Applied Linguistics 11, 1. 364—83.

Gregg, K. R. 1993: Taking explanation seriously; or, let a couple of flowers bloom.

Applied Linguistics 14, 3, 276-294.

Gregg, K. R. 1996a: The logical and developmental problems of second language

acquisition.  In Ritchie, W.C. and Bhatia, T.K. (eds.) Handbook of second language acquisition.  San Diego: Academic Press

Gregg, K. R. 1996b: Universal principles for the modular mind. Posting on the

SLART-L  discussion list.  SLART-L@CUNYVM.BITNET

Gregg, K. R. 1997: A honeymoon in the hand; or Every man his own theorist: a

comment on Lantolf (1996).  Ms. Osaka: Department of English, Mornoyama Gakuin University.

Gregg, K. R. 2000: A theory for every occasion: postmodernism and SLA.  Second

Language Research 16, 4, 34-59.

Gregg, K. R. 2001: “Learnability and SLA theory”  in Cognition and Second Language

Instruction.  Robinson, P. (ed)  Cambridge, CUP.

Gregg, K. R. 2003: The state of emergentism in second language acquisition.  Second

Language Research, 19, 2, 42-75.

Gregg, K. R., Long,  M. H., Jordan, G., and Beretta, A. 1997: Rationality and its

discontents in SLA.  Applied Linguistics 18, 4, 539-559.

Grigorenko, E., Sternberg, R., and Ehrman, M.  2000: A Theory-Based Approach to the

Measurement of Foreign Language Learning Ablity: The Canal-F Theory and Test.

The Modern Language Journal 84, iii, 390-405.

Gross, P. and Levitt, N. 1998: Higher Superstition. Baltimore: John Hopkins University


Guba, E. 1990: The alternative paradigm dialog. In Guba, E. (Ed.) The Paradigm

Dialog. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Guy, J. 2000: Many a slip twixt cup and lip.  Times Higher Educational Supplement,

April 7, Books Section, 2.

Hacking, I. 1983: Representing and Intervening.  Cambridge: Cambridge University


Hakuta, K. 1976: A case study of a Japanese child learning English as a second

language.  Language Learning 26, 2, 321-351.

Hales, M. 1986: Science or society. The politics of the work of scientists. London: Free

Association Books.

Halliday, M. 1973: Explorations in the Functions of Language.  London: Edward


Halliday, M. 1985: An Introduction to functional grammar.  London: Edward Arnold.

Hanson, N. 1958: Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harman, G. 1980: Two quibbles about analyticity and psychological reality.  The

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 21-2.

Harrington, M. 1987: Processing transfer: language-specific processing strategies as a

source of interlanguage variation.  Applied Psycholinguistics 8, 351-377.

Hawkins, R. 2001: Second language syntax: a generative introduction.

Oxford: Blackwell.

Hempel, C. G. 1952: Fundamentals of concept formation in empirical science : Chicago : University of Chicago Press


Hempel, C.G. and Oppenheim, H. 1948: The Philosophy of Science.  Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Herschensohn, J. 2000: The second time around: minimalism and second language

acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hume, D. 1988 [1748]: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.  Amherst, N.Y.


Hymes, D. 1972: On Communicative Competence. In Pride, J. And Holmes, J. (eds.)

Sociolinguistics.  Harmondsworth: Penguin

Johnson, J. and Newport, E. 1989: Critical period effects in second language

learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of ESL.

Cognitive Psychology 21, 60-99.

Kant, I. 1952: The Critique of Pure Reason.  Oxford: Clarendon Press

Kaplan, A. 1964: The Content of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioural Sciences.

  1. Francisco: Chandler.

Koetge, N. 1996: Wrestling with the Social Constructor.  In Gross, P., Leviit, N. and

Lewis, M. (eds.) The Flight From Science and Reason. Annals of The New York

Academy of  Sciences. Vol. 775, 266-273..

Krashen, S. 1977a: The monitor model of adult second language performance. In

Burt, M., Dulay, H. and Finocchiaro, M. (eds.), Viewpoints on English as a second

language. New York: Regents, 152-61.

Krashen, S. 1977b: Some issues relating to the monitor model. In Brown, H., Yorio,C.

and Crymes, R. (eds.). Teaching and learning English as a second language: some trends in research and practice. Washington, DC: TESOL, 144-48.

Krashen, S. 1978: Individual variation in the use of the monitor. In Ritchie, W. (ed.)

Second language acquisition research: issues and implications. New York:

Academic Press, 175-83.

Krashen, S. 1981: Second language acquisition and second language learning.

Oxford: Pergamon.

Krashen, S. 1982: Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford;


Krashen, S. 1985: The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. New York: Longman.

Krashen, S. and Scarcella, R. 1978: On routines and patterns in second language

acquisition and performance. Language Learning 28, 283—300.

Krashen, S. and Terrell, T. 1983: The natural approach: language acquisition in the

classroom. Hayward, CA: Alemany Press.

Kuhn, T. 1962: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.  Chicago: University of

Chicago Press.

Kuhn, T. 1977: The Essential Tension.  Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Labov, W.  1972:  Sociolinguistic patterns.  Philadelphia:  University of Pennsylvania


Lado, R. 1957: Linguistics across cultures.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Lakatos, I. 1978a: The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes,

Philosophical Papers Volume I.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakatos, I. 1978b: Mathematics, Science, and Epistemology. Philosophical Papers

Volume 2.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakatos, I. and Musgrave, A. (eds.) 1970: Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Lantolf, J. P. 1994a; Introduction to the Special Issue. Modern Language Journal

78, 418-20.

Lantolf, J. P. 1994b (ed.): Sociocultural theory and second language learning: Special

issue. Modern Language Journal 78.

Lantolf, J. P. 1996a: SLA Building: Letting all the flowers bloom.  Language

Learning 46, 4, 713-749.

Lantolf, J. P. 1996b: Second language acquisition theory building?  In Blue, G.  and

Mitchell, R. (eds.), Language and education. Clevedon: BAAL/ Multilingual

Matters, 16-27.

Larsen-Freeman, D. and Long, M. H. 1991: An introduction to second language

acquisition research. Harlow: Longman.

Laudan, L. 1977: Progress and its problems: Towards a theory of scientific growth.

Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Laudan, L. 1981: A Problem-Solving Approach to Scientific Progress.  In I.

Hacking (ed.) Scientific Revolutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Laudan, L. 1990: Science and relativism: some key controversies in the philosophy

of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Laudan, L. 1996: Beyond positivism and relativism.  Theory, method, and evidence.

Boulder, CO: Westview

Laudan, L. and Laudan, R. 1989: Dominance and the disunity of method: Solving

the problems of innovation and consensus. Philosophy of Science 56, 221-37.

Latour, B. 1985: Science in Action: How to follow Scientists and Engineers through

Society.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Latour, B. 1988: The Pasteurization of France. Cambridge: Harvard.

Latour, B. and Woolgar, S. 1979: Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific

Facts.  London: Sage.

Levelt, W. 1989: Speaking: From Intention to Articulation.  Cambridge, MA: MIT


Levi-Strauss, C: 1978: Myth and Meaning. London: Routeledge and Kegan Paul.

Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. 1993: How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Lincoln, Y. S. 1990: The making of a constructivist: A remembrance of transformations

past.  In Guba, E. (ed.) The paradigm dialog.  Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lincoln, Y. S. and Guba, E.G. 1985: Naturalistic Enquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lipton, P. 1991: Inference to the Best Explanation. London: Routledge.

Lococo, V. 1975: A comparison of three methods for the collection of L2 data: free

composition, translation, and picture description.  Working Papers on Bilingualism 8: 59-86.

Long, M. H. 1980: Input, interaction and second language acquisition. Doctoral

dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.

Long, M. H. 1981: Input, interaction and second language acquisition. In Winitz, H.

(ed.). Native language and foreign language acquisition. Annals of the New York

Academy of Sciences 379, 259-278.

Long, M. H. 1983a: Native speaker/non native speaker conversation and the

negotiation of comprehensible input. Applied Linguistics  4, 2, 126-141.

Long, M. H. 1983b: Linguistic and conversational adjustments to non-native speakers.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition 5, 2,177-193.

Long, M. H. 1983c: Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of

research.  TESOL Quarterly 17, 3, 359-3.

Long, M. H. 1985a: Input and second language acquisition theory. In Gass, S. M.

and Madden, C. G. (eds.). Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 377-93.

Long, M. H. 1985b: Theory construction in second language acquisition.  Paper

presented at the Second Language Research Forum, University of California, Los Angeles.

Long, M. H. 1988: Instructed interlanguage development In Beebe, L. (Ed.),

Language acquisition: Multiple perspectives.. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House, 15-41.

Long, M. H. 1990a; The least a second language acquisition theory needs to explain.

TESOL Quarterly 24, 4, 654-666.

Long, M. H. 1990b: Maturational constraints on language development. Studies in

Second Language Acquisition 12, 251-85.

Long, M. H. 1993: Assessment strategies for SLA theories. Applied Linguistics  14,3,


Long, M. H. 1996: The role of the linguistic environment in second language

acquisition. In Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K. (eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, 413-68.

Long, M. H. 1997a: Construct validity in SLA research: A response to Firth and

Wagner. Modem Language Journal 81, 3, 318-323.

Long, M. H. 1997b: Focus on form and Task-Based Language Teaching. Paper

presented at the fourth annual McGraw-Hill Teleconference on Foreign Language Teaching, California State University, Long Beach, October 29, 1997.

Long, M.H. 1998: SLA: Breaking the Siege.  Plenary address, PacSLRF 3, Tokyo,

Japan: Aoyama Gakin University, March, 1998.

Long, M.H. 1999: Second language acquisition theories.  Keynote address, AILA 99,

Tokyo: Waseda University, August 1-7.

Long, M.H., and Robinson, P. 1998: Focus on form; Theory, research and practice.

In Doughty, C., and Williams, J. (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom SLA  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 15-41.

Long, M.H., and Ross, S. 1993: Modifications that preserve language and meaning. In

Tickoo, M. (Ed.), Simplification: Theory, research and practice.  Singapore:

Regional Language Centre/Singapore University Press.

§   Long, M.H. and Sato, C. 1983: Classroom foreigner talk discourse: forms and

§ functions of teachers’ questions.  In Selinger, H. And Long, M. (eds.) Classroom-orientated research in second language acquisition.  Newbury House, Rowley, Mass.

Lyotard, J. 1984: The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Manchester:

Manchester University Press.

Lyotard, J. 1992: The Postmodern Explained. Sidney: Power Publications.

MacWhinney, B. 1989: Competition and connectionism. In MacWhinney, B. and

Bates, E. (eds.). The crosslinguistic study of sentence processing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 422-457.

MacWhinney, B. 1995: Language-specific prediction in foreign language learning.

Language Testing 12, 292-319.

MacWhinney, B. 1997: Second Language Acquisition and the Competition Model.  In

de Groot, A. B. M. and Kroll, J. F. (eds) Tutorials in Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J. Erlbaum.

MacWhinney, B. and Bates, E. (eds.) 1989: The crosslinguistic study of sentence

processing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

MacWhinney, B. and Chang, E. 1995: Connectionism and language learning. In

Nelson, C. A. (ed.), Basic and applied perspectives on learning, cognition and development. The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Volume 28. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum Associates, 33-57.

Madison, G. 1993: Working Through Derrida. (ed.)  Illinois: Northwestern University


Markee, N. 1994: Towards an Ethnomethodological Respecification of Second

Language Acquisition Studies.  In Tarone, E., Gass, S., and Cohen, A. Research

Methodology in Second-Language Acquisition.  NJ: Lawrence Eribaum Associates.

McLaughlin, B. 1987: Theories of Second Language Learning.  London: Edward


McLaughlin, B. 1990: “Conscious” versus “unconscious” learning.  TESOL Quarterly

24, 617-634.

Meisel, J. 1997: The acquisition of the syntax of negation in French and German;

contrasting first and second language development. Second Language Research 13, 227-63.

Meisel, J., Clahsen, H. and Pienemann, M. 1981: On determining developmental

stages in natural seconds language acquisition. Studies in Second Language

Acquisition 3, 109-35.

Mercer, N.  1995: The guided construction of  knowledge. Clevedon: Multilingual


Meron, R. K. 1973: The Sociology of Knowledge.  Chicago, University of Chicago


Mill, J.S. 1952: Utilitarianism.  Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. 1998: Second Language Learning Theories. London:


Mowrer, D. 1950: Learning theory and personality dynamics.  New York: Ronald


Nagel, E. and Newman, J. 1959: Gödel’s Proof.  London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Newton Smith ,W.H, 1981: The Rationality of Science. London, Routeledge and

Kegan Paul.

Nicola, M. 1991: Theories of Second Language Acquisition and of Physics:

Pedagogical Implications.  Dialog on Language Instruction Vol. 7, No.1, 17-27.

Norris, C. 1990: What’s Wrong with Postmodernism.  Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Odlin, T. 1989: Language Transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. 

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O’Grady, W. 1987: Principles of grammar and learning. Chicago IL: University of

Chicago Press.

O’Grady, W. 1996: Language Acquisition without Universal Grammar: a general

nativist proposal for L2 learning. Second Language Research Vol.12. No.4, 374-397.

O’Hear, A. 1989: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science.  Oxford: Clarendon


Otsu, Y. 1981: Universal grammar and syntactic development in children: toward a

theory of syntactic developmentUnpublished doctoral dissertation: Massachusetts

Institute of Technology.

Pacitti, D. 2000: A new twist in an old turn of phrase. Times Higher Educational

Supplement, Features Section 1, March 24.

Parker, K. 1989: Learnability theory and the acquisition of syntax.  University of

Hawaii Working Papers in ESL 8, 49-78.

Passmore, J. 1968: A Hundred Years of Philosophy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Pennycook, A: 1989: The Concept of Method, Interested Knowledge, and the Politics

of  Language Teaching.  TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 4, 589 – 603.

Pennycook, A: 1991: The Author Responds…. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 4, 749-

Pennycook, A. 1994: The cultural politics of English as an international language.

Harlow: Longman.

Piaget, J. 1970: Genetic epistemology. Columbia, OH: Columbia University Press.

Piaget, J. and Inhelder, B. 1966: The psychology of the child. Trans. H. Weaver. New

York: Basic Books.

Piatelli-Palmarini, M. (ed.) 1980: Language and learning: the debate between Jean

Piaget and Noam Chomsky. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Pienemann, M. 1987: Determining the influence of instruction on L2 speech

processing. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 10, 83-113.

Pienemann, M.  1989: Is language teachable? Psycholinguistic experiments and

hypotheses.  Applied Linguistics 10, 52-79.

Pienemann, M. 1992: Psycholinguistic processes in language acquisition. Paper

presented at the 1992 EUROSLA Conference in Jyvaskyla, Finland.

Pienemann, M. 1998: Language Processing and Second Language Development:

Processability Theory.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins

Pienemann, M. And Johnson, M. 1987: Factors influencing the development of

language proficiency.  In Nunan, D. (ed.) Applying second language acquisition

research, pp 45-141.  National Curriculum Resource Centre, Adult Migrant

Education Program, Adelaide.

Pinker, S. 1984: Language Learnability and Language Development. Cambridge, MA:

Harvard University Press.

Pinker, S. 1989: Learnability and cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pinker, S. 1994: The Language instinct. London: Penguin Books.

Popper, K. R. 1959: The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  London: Hutchinson.

Popper, K. R. 1963: Conjectures and Refutations.  London: Hutchinson.

Popper, K. R. 1965: The Poverty of Historicism.  London: Hutchinson.

Popper, K. R. 1972: Objective Knowledge.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Popper, K. 1974: Replies to Critics in P.A. Schilpp (ed.), The Philosophy of Karl

Popper. Open Court, La Salle, III.

Popper, K. R. 1980: The Open Society and Its Enemies.  London: Routledge and Kegan


Quine, W. 1953: From a Logical Point of View. Cambridge MA: Harvard University


Quine, W. 1972: Methodological reflections on current linguistic theory.  In Davidson

and Harman (eds.)  Semantics of Natural Language. Dordrecht: Reidel, 442-454.

Redman, D. 1993: Economics and the Philosophy of Science.  Oxford: Oxford

University Press

Reeves, J.W. 1958: Body and Mind in Western Thought. Harmondsworth: Penguin

Riggs, P.J. 1992: Whys and Ways of Science.   Introducing philosophical and

sociological theories of science. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press

Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T K. 1996: Second language acquisition: introduction,

foundations and overview. In Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K. (eds.) Handbook, of

second language acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, 1-46.

Robinson, P. 2001 (ed.): Cognition and Second Language Instruction.  Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Rosenau, P. M. 1992. Post-modernism and the social sciences. Insights, inroads, and

intrusions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rubin, J. 1975: What the “Good Language Learner” can teach us.  TESOL Quarterly

9, 1, 41-51.

Rumelhart, D. and McClelland, J. 1986a: On learning the past tense of English verbs. In

McClelland, J. and Rumelhart, D. (eds.), Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Rumelhart, D. and McClelland, J. 1986b: Research on the acculturation model for

second language acquisition,  Journal  of  Multilingual  and  Multicultural  Development 7, 379-92. Volume 2: Psychological and biological models. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Russell, B. 1961: History of Western Philosophy. London: Allen and Unwin.

Ryan, A. 1970: The Philosophy of the Social Sciences.  London: Macmillan.

Sampson, G. 1980: Making Sense. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sampson, G. 1997: Educating Eve. London: Cassell.

Sarup, M. 1993: An Introductory Guide to Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism.

Atlanta: University  of Georgia Press.

Sasaki, Y. 1991: English and Japanese interlanguage comprehension strategies: an

analysis based on the competition model.  Applied Psycholinguistics 12, 47-73.

Sato, C. 1984: Phonological processes in second language acquisition: another look at

interlanguage syllable structure.  Language Learning 34, 43-57.

Sawyer, M., and Ranta, L.  2001: Aptitude, individual differences, and instructional

design.  In Robinson, P. Cognition and Second Language Instruction.  Cambridge: CUP.

Schachter, J. 1974: An error in error analysis.  Language Learning 24, 205-214.

Schachter, J. 1989: Testing a proposed universal.  In Gass, S., and Schachter, J. (eds.)

Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition.  Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Schmidt, R. 1990: The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied

Linguistics 11, 129-58

Schmidt, R. 2001: Attention.  In Robinson, P. (ed.) Cognition and Second Language

Instruction.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3-32.

Schumann, J. 1978a: The pidginization process: A model for SLA. Rowley: MA:

Newbury House.

Schumann, J. 1978b: SLA: The Pidginization process. In E. Hatch (ed.) SLA.  Rowley,

MA: Newbury House.

Schumann, J. 1978c: Social and psychological factors in second language acquisition.

In Richards, J. (ed.). Error analysis: perspectives on second language learning. London: Longman.

Schumann, J. 1983: Art and Science in Second Language Acquisition Research.

Language Learning 33, 49-75

Schumann, J. 1986: Research on the acculturation model for SLA. Journal of

Multilingual and Multicultural Development 7, 379-392.

Searle, J.R. 1993: The World Turned Upside Down.  In Madison, G. (ed.) Working

Through Derrida.  Illinois: Northwestern University Press.

Seidenberg, M.S. and MacDonald, M.C. 1999: A probabilistic constraints approach to

language acquisition and processing.  Cognitive Science, 23569-588.

Seliger, H. 1979: On the nature and function of language rules in language teaching.

TESOL Quarterly 13, 359-369.

Selinker, L. 1972: Interlanguage, international Review of Applied Linguistics 10, 209-


Selinker, L. 1992: Rediscovering interlanguage. London: Longman.

Selinker, L. and Lamendella, J. 1978: Two perspectives on fossilization in interlanguage

learning. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin,3, 143-191.

Selinker, L., Swain, L., and Dumas, G. 1975: The interlanguage hypothesis extended to

children.  Language Learning 25: 139-191.

Shawver, L. 1996: What Postmodernism Can Do for Psychoanalysis: A Guide to the

Postmodern Vision. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 56(4), pp.371-394.

Skehan, P. 1989: Individual differences in foreign language learning. London: Edward


Skehan, P. 1995: Analysability, accessibility, and ability for use.  In Cook, G. And

Seidlhoffer. B. (eds.): Principles and Practice in Applied Linguistics.  Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

Skinner, B. F. 1957: Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Smith, N. 1999: Chomsky: Ideas and Ideals.  Cambridge: Cambridge University


Sokal, A. and Bricmont, J. 1998: Intellectual Impostures.  London: Profile Books.

Sorace, A. 1996: The use of acceptability judgements in second language acquisition

research.  In Ritchie, W. and Bhatia, T. (eds.), Handbook of second language

acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, 375—409.

Spolsky, B. 1969: Attitudinal aspects of second language learning.  Language

Learning 19, 271-285.

Spolsky, B. 1989: Conditions for second language learning. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Swain, M. 1985: Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible Input and

comprehensible output in its development. In Gass, S. M. and Madden, C. G. (eds.),  Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 235-53.

Tarone, E. 1983a: On the variability of interlanguage systems.  Applied Linguistics 4,2,


Tarone, E. 1983b: Some thoughts on the notion of ‘communication strategy’. In Fierce,

  1. and Casper, G. (eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication. London:


Tarone, E. 1984: Teaching strategic competence in the foreign language classroom. In

Savignon, S. and Berns, M. (eds.), Initiatives in communicative language teaching.

Reading. MA: Addison Wesley.

Tarone, E. 1985: The interlanguage continuum. In Wheatley, B., Hastings, A.,

Eckman, F., Bell, L., Krukar, G., and Rutkowski, R. (eds.) Current Approaches to

Second Language Acquisition: Proceedings of the 1984 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Linguistics Symposium. Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Linguistics Club.  

Tarone, E. 1988: Variation in interlanguage. London: Edward Arnold,

Tarone, E. 1990: On variation in interlanguage: a response to Gregg.  Applied

Linguistics 11,1, 392-400.

Tester, K. 1993: The Life and Times of Postmodernity. London: Routledge.

Toates, F. and Slack, I. 1990: Behaviourism and its consequences.  In Roth, I. (ed.)

Introduction to Psychology.  Boston: Psychology Press.

Towell, R. and Hawkins, R. 1994: Approaches to second language acquisition.

Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Towell, R., Hawkins, R. and Bazergui, N. 1996: The development of fluency

in advanced learners of French. Applied Linguistics 17, 1, 84-115.

Usher, R. and Edwards, R. 1994. Postmodernism and education. London: Routledge.

Turner, B. S. 1990: Theories of Modernity and Postmodernity. London: SAGE


van Lier, L. 1994: Forks and hope: pursuing understanding in different ways.

Applied Linguistics 15, 2, 28-46.

Vygotsky, L. S. 1962: Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Watson, J. 1924: Behaviorism. New York: Norton.

White, L. 1989: Universal Grammar and second language acquisition. Amsterdam: J

John Benjamins.

White, L. 1996: Issues of Matuation and Modality in Second Language Acquisition. In Ritchie, W.C. and Bhatia, T.K. (eds.) Handbook of second language acquisition.  San Diego: Academic Press

Widdowson, H. 1989: Knowledge of language and ability for use.  Applied Linguistics

10,2, 128-137.

Widdowson, H. 1992: Aspects of the relationship between culture and language.  In H.

Antor, and R. Ahrens (eds.)  Text-Culture-Reception.  Cross-Cultural Aspects of

English Studies.  Carl Winter Universitaetsverlag.

Widdowson, H. 1996: Linguistics in the Oxford Guide to Language Study. Oxford:

Oxford University Press

Willett, J. 1995: Becoming first graders in an L2: an ethnographic study of L2

socialisation. TESOL Quarterly 29, 473-503.

Winch, F. 1970: The Idea of a Social Science.  In Ryan, A.: The Philosophy of

the Social Sciences.  London, Macmillan.

Wittgenstein, L. 1995 (1922): Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Translated

C.K.Ogden and F.P. Ramsey, with an introduction by B. Russell.  London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Wittgenstein, L. 1953: Philosophical Investigations. Translated by G:E.M. Anscombe.

Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Wode, H. 1978: Developmental sequences in naturalistic L2 acquisition. In Hatch, E.

(ed..): Second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Wolfe Quintero, K. 1992: Learnability and the acquisition of extraction in relative

clauses and wh-questions.  Studies in Second Language Acquisition 14, 39-70.

Wolfe-Quintero, K. 1996: Nativism does not equal Universal Grammar.  Second

Language Research 12, 4, 335-373.

Ziman, J. 1978: Reliable Knowledge.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zobl, H. 1980: The formal and developmental selectivity of L1 influence on L2

acquisition.  Language Learning 30, 1, 43-57.