Note: I’ve updated this to go with the Synthetic and Analytic Syllabuses Part 2 post, where I explain the motivation for Breen’s Process syllabus and describe what it entails.
Breen’s (1987b) Process syllabus is based on this rationale:
- Authentic communication between learners involves the genuine need to share meaning and to negotiate about things that actually matter and require action on a learner’s part.
- Meta-communication and shared decision-making are necessary conditions of language learning in any classroom.
- The Process Syllabus empowers learners and stresses the vital role of the teacher.
Rationale for a Process Task-Based Syllabus
I tentatively propose a Process Task-based syllabus based on this rationale:
- Problem-solving tasks generate learner interaction, real communication, the negotiation of meaning, rich comprehensible input and output.
- There is a focus on the processes of learner participation in discourse.
- Tasks are sequenced on the basis of addressing learner problems as they arise, thereby overcoming sequencing limitations of conventional syllabus design criteria
- Learners work on all parts of the sylllabus, including input and materials design.
- Promote “Learning by Doing” (Real-world tasks)
- Provide rich input (Realistic target language use)
- Focus on Form (not FoFs)
- Provide Negative Feedback (Recasts +)
- Involve learners in decision-making
- Respect Interlanguage Development.
Needs Analysis consists of:
- Pre-course questionnaires
- Planning sessions during course
In all tasks
- Meaning is primary
- Focus is on outcomes
- Students feel the relevance of the task to their English language needs.
We distinguish between Macro and Micro Tasks
Macro tasks: Solve a well-defined problem. My suggestion is that a macro task, involving 6 to 15 hours class time forms the framework for micro tasks, and that it is framed as a problem. Examples:
- How can we re-organising the banking sector, post 2008, in Country X so as to avoid a repetition of the 2008 collapse, provide individuals with cheap, efficient, reliable services, etc. etc..?
- How do new sophisticated statistics software packages affect house / car / life / …. insurance in Country X?
- How can parents deal with teenagers’ use of mobile phones in Country X?
- The Reinvention of Danone: planning for continued growth.
- How can we ensure the continuation of Newspaper X in Country X?
- What is the best model for primary & secondary education: Finland, Poland, or UK?
- How can the problems of water scarcity in Country X be tackled?
- How can traffic problems in City X be tackled?
- How can racial discrimination in Industry X or Sector X in Country X be tackled?
- How can tourism in Location X be promoted?
Micro tasks: Each Macro Task is broken down into a series of Micro Tasks. Here is a suggested sequence, not definitive.
- Understand the problem
- Suggest Tentative Solutions
- Gather information
- Analyse and Assess information
- Test Tentative Solutions
- Propose Solution
- Discuss Solution
- Make decision
The teacher takes charge of the first section of the course.
At the end of Section 1, there is a Feedback / Planning session. Students fill in 2 short questionnaires and then put together a plan for Section 2. They tell the teacher what topic or topics they want to work on, how they feel about help with grammar, vocab., etc., and how they want to work. The teachers uses their feedback and their plan to design Section 2 of the course.
The teacher then leads students through Section 2. At the end of the section, there is a new Feedback / Planning session, the students have learned from the first 2 sections a bit more about how to use the planning session to their best advantage, so they do a better job of planning Section 3, the teacher puts the plan together, and on it goes.
A 100 hour course will consist of 8 to 10 sections.
An Example: General Business Course for adults
- Type of Student: Adult
- Number of Students: 12
- Level: Mid-Intermediate (CEFR: B2).
- Course Duration: 100 hours; 6 hours a week.
- Main Objectives: Improve English for business purposes. Priority: oral communication.
Section 1 (Hours 1 to 12)
Before the course starts, students fill in a NA and are interviewed.
The teacher designs and leads the first section of the course by leading work on a suitable Macro task, chosen on the basis of data gathered from NA and interviews. To carry out the Micro Tasks, materials from a Materials Bank are used: worksheets, web-based material, videos, oral and written texts, articles, newspaper reports, etc..
While carrying out the tasks, the teacher
- attends to grammar through negative feedback and focus on form,
- attends to vocabulary building and lexical chunks in vocab. sessions,
- includes some written work in class,
- sets homework of various types,
- establishes a website for the class,
- provides a mixture of group work, pair work, whole class work,
- generally tries to give students a taste of what’s possible.
First Feedback / Planning Session
Tool 1: Feedback Sheet
1= very bad 10 = excellent
General feeling about course so far: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
My participation: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
My progress: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Teacher: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Activities: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Use of time: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Level of difficulty: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Best parts of the classes:
Worst parts of the classes:
Too much / too little time was spent on:
Tool 2: Planning Sheet
What should be the Topic/s for the next Section of the course?
Class Work: What proportion of the time should we work
- in pairs,
- in small groups,
- as a whole group?
Activities Name activities yu want to do. Be as detailed as possible.
- Listening (video / audio / etc.)
- Reading (texts, internet searches, etc.)
- Writing (e-mails, reports, etc.)
- Speaking (discussions, meetings, stories, presentations, etc.)
- Grammar work
- Vocabulary work
- Pronunciation work
What other recommendations do you have?
Prepare a report giving your recommendations for Section 2 of the course.
Students are given the Feedback and Planning questionnaires which they fill in individually.
They then get into groups of 4 to discuss their answers, reach consensus on the plan for Section 2, and prepare a report to give to the whole class. During this first planning session, it’s important for the teacher to encourage everybody to make specific, focused suggestions. My experience using this type of syllabus is that students will tend to say “We liked Section 1 well enough, you carry on, just let’s have a bit more of this and a bit less of that.” You have to insist that they give more input than this.
The whole class meets to hear reports from each group. The teacher records this meeting. The teacher listens to the feedback comments and makes no attempt to defend himself/herself against any criticism. The groups then report on their plans for Section 2, after which the class discusses the reports together and reaches final decisions. The teacher promises to present the plan for Section 2 in the next class.
At the next class, the teacher presents the plan for Section 2. Exactly how much this reflects the students’ plan will depend on the context, but in any case it’s the teacher’s job to explain the plan, and to make sure it sufficiently reflects the students’ suggestions. Then Section 2 begins.
In Section 2, the teacher leads students through one or more Macro tasks, chosen in line with the students’ decisions on topic. The Micro Tasks involve activities involving the 4 skills, and are again chosen to reflect the students’ comments on where they want to concentrate. The materials for these activities come from a Materials Bank, and it’s obvious that this Materials Bank plays a very important part in the delivery of this type of course. In the SLB cooperative, we’re currently working on materials that are coded according to topic, skill, level, grammar point, vocabulary area, group / pair / whole class work, etc., etc., so that if members want to do a syllabus of this type, they can quickly assemble the needed Micro Tasks which make up the Macro Task.
At the end of Section 2, the 2nd Feedback/Planning session is held. Students fill in the same questionnaires and go through the same group and whole class discussion phases. They do it better this time; and they’ll do it better the 3rd time.
Variations in Process TBLT
The basic idea is that the syllabus is divided into sections, and each section does macro problem-solving task(s). Each section preceded by a planning session. The variable elements are:
- Number of Sections
- Content of Planning Session (how much students decide)
- Materials: (from Materials Bank to Coursebook)
- Nature of tasks
- Nature of vocab. and grammar work
The Process TBLT syllabus is very sketchy and open to lots of criticism. The NA is open to all the criticsms Long makes of it, and so are the tasks themselves, but on the other hand, students engage in the messy work of learning and directly affect decisions; it’s adaptable; it avoid the false assumptions made by synthetic syllabuses; it’s learner-centred; and it’s likely to be more rewarding for all concerned than coursebook-driven ELT.
Breen, M. (1987) Contemporary Paradigms in Syllabus Design. Part I Language Teaching Volume 20, Issue 2
Breen, M. (1987) Contemporary Paradigms in Syllabus Design. Part 2 Language Teaching Volume 20, Issue 3
Breen, M., & Littlejohn, A. (Eds.). (2000). Classroom decision-making negotiation and process syllabus in practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.